This has been a massive research project.  We conducted over 90 interviews, pored over 20,000 pages of history, collected more than 1,400 photographs from three dozen sources, combed through hours of archival film and gathered dozens of documents from Israeli military archives.  In addition, we worked with a phenomenal group of advisers, including Charles D. Smith, Rosemarie M. Esber, Farid Abdel-Nour and Matthew C. Hogan.

Below, you’ll find most of the materials we consulted in our research.

Abbasi, M. (2008). The end of Arab Tiberias: The Arabs of Tiberias and the battle for the city in 1948. Journal of Palestine Studies, XXXVII(3), 6-29.

Abbasi, M. (2010a). Nazareth in the war for Palestine: The Arab city that survived the 1948 Nakba. Holy Land Studies, 9(2), 185-207

Abbasi, M. (2010b). The fall of Acre in the 1948 Palestine war. Journal of Palestine  Studies, XXXIX(4), 6-27.

Abdel-Nour, F. (2004). Responsibility and national memory: Israel and the Palestinian refugee problem. International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society, 17 (3), 339-363.

Abu-Ghazaleh, A. (1972). Arab cultural nationalism in Palestine during the British mandate. The Journal of Palestine Studies, 1(3), 37-63.

Abu Hussein, A., & McKay, F. (2003). Access denied: Palestinian land rights in Israel. New York, NY: Zed Books.

Abu Lughod, I, ed. (1971). The transformation of Palestine: Essays on the origin and  development of the Arab-Israeli conflict. Evanston: Northwestern University Press.

Abu Sitta, S. (2007). The return journey: A guide to the depopulated and present Palestinian towns and villages and holy sites. London, England: Palestine Land Society.

Aoudé, I. G. (1985). Lebanon: Dynamics of conflict. London: Zed Books.

Anglim, S. (n.d.). Orde Wingate and Anglo-Jewish military cooperation in Palestine–myth versus reality. Retrieved February 10, 2015, from

Anglim, S. (n.d.). Arab Israeli Lecture Notes 2—The British Mandate in Palestine. Retrieved February 10, 2015, from

Anniversary of Deir Yassin. (1972). Journal of Palestine Studies, 1(4), 142-146.

Another Deir Yassin? (1985). Journal of Palestine Studies, 14(2), 207–212. doi:10.2307/2537182

Appendix C: Text of Plan Dalet: Operational orders to the brigades. (1988). Journal of Palestine Studies, 18(1), 34–37. doi:10.2307/2537592

Appendix D: Maps: Arab villages emptied and Jewish settlements established in Palestine, 1948-49. (1988). Journal of Palestine Studies, 18(1), 38–50. doi:10.2307/2537593

Aruri, N. (Ed.). (2001). Palestinian refugees: the right of return. Sterling, VA: Pluto Press.

Assad, D. (2010). Palestine rising: How I survived the 1948 Deir Yassin massacre [Kindle version]. Retrieved from

Avnery, U. (2008). 1948: A soldier’s tale: the bloody road to Jerusalem. Oxford, England: Oneworld.

Azaryahu, M., & Golan, A. (2012). Photography, memory, and ethnic cleansing: The fate of the Jewish quarter of Jerusalem, 1948—John Phillips’ pictorial record. Israel Studies, 17(2), 62-76. doi:10.1353/is.2012.0015

Azoulay, A. (2011). Declaring the state of Israel: Declaring a state of war. Critical Inquiry, 37(2), 265–285.

Banks, L. (1982). Torn country: An oral history of the Israeli War of Independence. New York, NY: Franklin Watts.

Beit Hallahmi, B. (1993). Original Sins: Reflections on the History of Zionism and Israel. New York, NY: Olive Branch Press.

Ben-Bassat, Y. Proto-Zionist-Arab encounters in late nineteenth-century Palestine: Socioregional dimensions. The Journal of Palestine Studies, XXXVIII(2), 42-63.

Bentwich, N. (1948). The legal system of Palestine under the mandate. Middle East Journal, 2(1), 33-46.

Bregman, A. (2002). Israel’s wars: A history since 1947. New York, NY: Routledge.

Budeiri, M. (2001). A chronicle of a defeat foretold: The battle for Jerusalem in the memoirs of Anwar Nusseibeh. Jerusalem Quarterly, 11-12, 40-51.

Busailah, R. (1981). The fall of Lydda, 1948: Impressions and reminiscences. Arab Studies Quarterly, 3, 123-151.

Collins, L. and LaPierre, D. (2007), O Jerusalem!  New York, NY: Simon & Schuster Paperbacks.

Cohen, U. (2012). Unraveling the wars of 1948. Jewish Social Studies: History, Culture, Society, 18(3), 120-135.

Confino, A. (2012). Miracles and snow in Palestine and Israel: Tantura, a history of 1948. Israel Studies, 17(2), 25-61.

Conquergood, D. (1988). Health theater in a Hmong refugee camp: Performance, communication, and culture. Journal of Performance Studies, 32, 174-208.

Cuellar, G. (2013). Ruins under construction: An indirect portrait of Jaffa’s Etzel Museum. Forensic Architecture,

Dajani, S. (2005). Ruling Palestine: a history of the legally sanctioned Jewish-Israeli seizure of land and housing in Palestine.  Geneva: The Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions.

Davidson, L. (2010). Truman the politician and the establishment of Israel. Journal of Palestine Studies, XXXIX(4), 28-42.

Der Matossian, B. The Armenians of Palestine 1918-48. Journal of Palestine StudiesXXII(1), 24-44.

Dershowitz, A. (2003). The case for Israel. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.

Dowty, A., & Epstein, Y. (2001). “A question that outweighs all others”: Yitzhak Epstein and Zionist recognition of the Arab issue. Israel Studies, 6(1), 34-54.

Elboim-Dror, R. (2000). British educational policies in Palestine. Middle Eastern Studies, 36(2), 28-47.

Esber, R. M. (2008). Under the cover of war: The Zionist expulsion of the Palestinians.

Alexandria, VA: Arabicus Books and Media, LLC.

Finkelstein, N. (2003). Image and Reality of the Israel-Palestine Conflict (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Verso.

Flapan, S. (1987). The birth of Israel: Myths and realities. New York, NY: Pantheon Books.

Friling, T., & Troen, S. I. (1998). Proclaiming independence: Five days in May from Ben-Gurion’s diary. Israel Studies, 3(1), 170-194.

Gedalia, Y. (1980). Political and diplomatic documents: December 1947. Israel State Archives., Tel Aviv, Israel.

Gelber, Y. (2006). Palestine 1948: War, escape and the emergence of the Palestinian refugee problem. Sussex, England: Academic Press.

Ghory, E. (1937). An Arab view of the situation in Palestine. International Affairs, 15(5), 684-699.

Gilbert, M. (1998). Israel: A history. New York, NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc.

Golan, A. (2010). Lydda and Ramle: From Palestinian-Arab to Israeli towns, 1948-67. Middle Eastern Studies, 39(4), 121-139.

Golan, A. (2012). The battle for Jaffa, 1948. Middle Eastern Studies, 48(6), 997-1011.

Golani, G. (2001). The ‘Haifa Turning Point’: The British administration and the civil war in Palestine, December 1947-May 1948. Middle Eastern Studies, 37(2), 93-130.

Gorny, Y. (2005). From Binational Society to Jewish State: Federal Concepts in Zionist Political Thought, 1920-1990. n.p.: Brill Academic Publishers.

Grondahl, M. (2003). In hope and despair: Life in the Palestinian refugee camps. Cairo, Egypt: American University in Cairo Press.

Haganah Breaks Through Encircled Old City of Jerusalem; Captures Sarafand. (May 20, 1948). Retrieved February 13, 2015, from

Hammer, J. (2005). Palestinians born in exile: Diaspora and the search for a homeland. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

Hasson, N. (March 6, 2012). Betrayed by history and the present. Retrieved February 13, 2015, from

Heiman, L. (June, 1964). All’s fair. Marine Corps Gazette, 48(6), 37-40.

Herzl, T. (1988). The Jewish state. Mineola, New York, NY: Dover.

Hogan, M. (2001). The 1948 massacre at Deir Yassin revisited. Historian, 63(2), 309–334. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6563.2001.tb01468.x

Hughes, M. (2009). The banality of brutality: British armed forces and the repression of the Arab revolt in Palestine, 1936-39. The English Historical Review, CXXIV(507), 313–354. doi:10.1093/ehr/cep002

Hughes, M. (2010). From law and order to pacification: Britain’s suppression of the Arab revolt in Palestine, 1936-39. Journal of Palestine Studies, 39(2), 6-22.

Kadish, A., & Sela, A. (2005). Myths and historiography of the 1948 Palestine war revisited: The case of Lydda. The Middle East Journal, 59(4), 617-634.

Kanaaneh, M. (2008). Talking stones & yearning ruins. Publisher: Author.

Kaniuk, Y. (2012). 1948: a novel. New York, NY: NYRB Lit.

Karmi, G. (2002). In search of Fatima: A Palestinian story. New York, NY: Verso.

Karsh, E. (1999). The collusion that never was: King Abdallah, the Jewish Agency and the partition of Palestine. Journal of Contemporary History, 34(4), 569-585.

Karsh, E. (2002). The Arab-Israeli conflict: the Palestine War 1948. Oxford: Osprey.

Karsh, E. (2010). Palestine betrayed. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Karsh, E. Were The Palestinians Expelled.  Commentary Magazine. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Keydar, R. (2012). “I was in a war, and in a war things like that happen”: On judgments and ethical investigations in Israeli law and literature. Jewish Social Studies: History, Culture, Society, 18(3), 212-224.

Khalidi, R. (1997). Palestinian identity: The construction of modern national  consciousness. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

Khalidi, R. (2007). The iron cage: The story of the Palestinian struggle for statehood. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.

Khalidi, R. (1988). Plan Dalet: Master plan for the conquest of Palestine. Journal of  Palestine Studies, 18(1), 4–33. doi:10.2307/2537593

Khalidi, W. (Ed.). (1992). All that remains: The Palestinian villages occupied and  depopulated by Israel in 1948. Washington, DC: Institute for Palestine Studies.

Khalidi, W. (1993). Benny Morris and before their Diaspora. Journal of Palestine Studies, 22(3), 106-119.

Khalidi, W. (1998). Selected documents on the 1948 Palestine war. Journal of Palestine Studies, 27(3), 60-105.

Khalidi, W. (2004). Before their diaspora: A photographic history of the Palestinians 1876-1948. Washington, DC: Institute for Palestine Studies.

Khalidi, W. (2005). Why did the Palestinians leave, revisited. Journal of Palestine Studies, XXXIV(2), 42-54.

Khalidi, W. (2008). The fall of Haifa revisited. Journal of Palestine Studies, XXXVII(3), 30-58.

Khalidi, W. (2009). The Hebrew Reconquista of Palestine: From the 1947 United Nations partition resolution to the first Zionist Congress of 1897. Journal of Palestine Studies, XXXIX(1), 24-42.

Khalidi, W. (2014). One century after World War I and the Balfour Declaration: Palestine and Palestine studies. Retrieved February 10, 2015, from

Khalili, L. (2007). Heroic and tragic pasts: Mnemonic narratives in the Palestinian refugee camps. Critical Sociology, 33, 731-759.

Klier, J. & Lambroza, S. (2004). Pogroms: anti-Jewish violence in modern Russian history. Cambridge, MA?: Cambridge University Press.

Kochavi, A. (1998). The struggles against Jewish immigration to Palestine. Middle Eastern Studies, 34(3), 146-167.

Kurzman, D. (1992). Genesis 1948: The first Arab-Israeli war. New York, NY: Da Capo Press.

Laqueur, W. (2003). A history of Zionism: From the French Revolution to the establishment of the state of Israel. New York, NY: Schocken Books.

Levin, H. (1996). Jerusalem embattled: A diary of the city under siege March 25, 1948 to July 18th, 1948. Herndon, VA: Cassell.

LeVine, M. (1998). Conquest through town planning: The case of Tel Aviv, 1921-48. Journal of Palestine Studies, 27(4), 36-52.

Lindemann, A. (2000a). Anti-Semitism before the Holocaust. Harlow, England: Longman.

Lindemann, A. (2000b). Esau’s tears: Modern anti-Semitism and the rise of the Jews. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Lorch, N. (1961). The edge of the sword: Israel’s war of independence, 1947-1949. New York, NY: G.P. Putnam’s Sons.

Lustick, I. (1996). To build and to be built by: Israel and the hidden logic of the iron wall. Israel Studies, 1(1), 196-223.

Lynd, S., Lynd, A., & Bahour, S. (Eds.). (1998). Homeland: Oral histories of Palestine and Palestinians. Brooklyn, NY: Interlink.

Mac Allister, K. & Gassner, I. (Eds.). (2007). 1948-2008: 60 years of the Palestinian Nakba: Survey of Palestinian refugees and internally displaced persons: 2006-2007. Bethlehem, Palestine: Badil Resource Center.

Masalha, N. (1988). On recent Hebrew and Israeli sources for the Palestinian exodus, 1947-49. Journal of Palestine Studies, 18(1), 121-137. doi:10.2307/2537599

Masalha, N. (1992). Expulsion of the Palestinians: The concept of “transfer” in Zionist political thought, 1882-1948. Washington, DC: Institute for Palestine Studies.

Masalha, N. (2000). Imperial Israel and the Palestinians: The politics of expansion. London, England: Pluto Press.

Masalha, N. (2002). The Palestinian Nakba: Zionism, ‘transfer,’ and the 1948 exodus. Global Dialogue, 4(3), 77-91.

Masalha, N. (2004). The politics of denial: Israel and the Palestinian refugee problem. London, England: Pluto Press.

Milstein, U. (1998). History of Israel’s War of Independence: A nation girds for war (vols. 1-4). Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

Milstein, U. (2012). The birth of a Palestinian nation: The myth of the Deir Yassin massacre [Kindle version]. Retrieved form

Morris, B. (1986). Operation Dani and the Palestinian exodus from Lydda and Ramle in 1948. Middle East Journal, 40(1), 82-109.

Morris, B. (1988). The birth of the Palestinian refugee problem 1947-1949. New York:

Cambridge University Press.

Morris, B. (1999). Righteous victims: A history of the Zionist-Arab conflict: 1881-1999. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Morris, B. (2001). Righteous victims: A history of the Zionist-Arab conflict, 1881-2001. New York, NY: Vintage.

Morris, B. (2004). The birth of the Palestinian refugee problem revisited. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Morris, B. (2005). The historiography of Deir Yassin. Journal of Israeli History: Politics, Society, Culture, 24(1), 79-107. doi:10.1080/13531040500040305

Morris, B. (2008). 1948: A history of the first Arab-Israeli war. New Haven, CT.: Yale University Press.

Mulhall, J. W. (1995). America and the founding of Israel: An investigation of the morality of America’s role. Los Angeles, CA: Deshon Press.

Munayyer, S. (1998). The fall of Lydda. Journal of Palestinian Studies, 27(4). 80-98.

Murphy, E. C. (1997). Palestine and Palestinians—Comrades and enemies: Arab and Jewish workers in Palestine, 1906-1948. The Middle East Journal, 51(3), 452-453.

Nashif, T. (). Elite composition and socio-political correlations: Age, foreign travel and writings of the Jewish political elite during the British mandate over Palestine. Journal of Third World Studies, XXVII(2), 173-191.

Nets-Zehngut, R., & Bar-Tal, D. (2013). Transformation of the official memory of conflict: A tentative model and the Israeli memory of the 1948 Palestinian

exodus. International Journal of Politics, Culture, & Society, 26(3), 67-91. doi: 10.1007/s10767-013-9147-6.

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Palumbo, M. (1991). The Palestinian catastrophe: The 1948 expulsion of a people from their homeland. Boston, MA: Faber and Faber.

Pappe, I. (1992). The making of the Arab-Israeli conflict: 1947-1951. New York, NY: I.B. Tauris.

Pappe, I. (2003). Humanizing the text: Israeli “new history” and the trajectory of the 1948 historiography. Radical History Review, 86, 102-122.

Pappe, I. (2006a). The 1948 ethnic cleansing of Palestine. Journal of Palestine StudiesXXXVI (1), 6-20.

Pappe, I. (2006b). The ethnic cleansing of Palestine. Oxford, England: Oneworld Publications Limited.

Pappe, I. (2009). The vicissitudes of the 1948 historiography of Israel. Journal of Palestine Studies, 39(1), 6-23.

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Refugee Interviews. (1988). Journal of Palestine Studies, 18(1), 158–171. doi:10.2307/2537601

Rogan, E., & Shlaim, A. (2007). The war for Palestine. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.

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